使用弹性布局写出 10 种常用的 UI 组件_html/css_WEB-ITnose

从 “display: flex” 属性开始

Flexbox CSS 的基础属性就是 display: flex ,只需要给元素添加这个属性,你就用上了弹性布局了。就这么简单!

你也许会问,这个属性起了什么作用?默认情况下,它指定了容器中的子元素沿主轴(main axis)排列,主轴默认是水平方向的。

接下来,我们会用两个实例来介绍这个属性是如何用在我们的 UI 组件的。

### 步进计数器 Demo

我们要介绍的第一个例子是步进输入框组件。当绑定 JavaScript 代码之后,点击 + / - 号,输入框中的值将会对应增加 / 减少。

译注:此处计数器的实现也可以使用 CSS Counters 来代替 JavaScript,具体例子可以参考 使用 CSS 的 counter-increment 做的游戏 。

按照以往的思路,你可能会选择用 display: inline-block 或者 float: left 来实现这种内联样式。然而,这样做的话,你还需要给这些元素统统添加特定的选择器。让我们使用弹性盒子吧,只需要往容器添加 display: flex 属性,就可以实现相同的效果了。

当你添加这个属性时,相当于对元素说:“嘿伙计,你就负责按照 flexbox 的规则排列你的子元素就好了!”。在最基本的形式下,元素沿主轴(main axis)排列,默认就是 x 轴,从左到右。

CSS 代码

```CSS

.stepperInput {

/**

* Setting display to flex makes this container lay

* out its children using flexbox. By default, it

* orders items horizontally, top-aligned.

* This has a similar effect to setting the children

* to have display: inline-block.

*/

display: flex;

}

.stepperInput__input {

border-left: 0;

border-right: 0;

width: 60px;

text-align: center;

}

.button {

cursor: pointer;

padding: 5px 15px;

color: #FFFFFF;

background-color: #4EBBE4;

font-size: 12px;

border: 1px solid #16A2D7;

border-radius: 4px;

}

.button–addOnLeft {

border-top-right-radius: 0;

border-bottom-right-radius: 0;

}

.button–addOnRight {

border-top-left-radius: 0;

border-bottom-left-radius: 0;

}

.input {

border: 1px solid #D7DBDD;

padding: 0 10px;

border-radius: 0;

box-shadow: none;

}

```

HTML 代码```HTML

### 标签页 [Demo](http://www.flexboxpatterns.com/tabs)![image](http://www.flexboxpatterns.com/images/thumbs/tabs.png)同理,使用 `display: flex` 也可以实现这种标签页效果。CSS 代码```CSS.tabs {  /**   * Setting display to flex makes this container lay   * out its children using flexbox, the exact same   * as in the above "Stepper input" example.   */  display: flex;  border-bottom: 1px solid #D7DBDD;}.tab {  cursor: pointer;  padding: 5px 30px;  color: #16A2D7;  font-size: 12px;  border-bottom: 2px solid transparent;}.tab.is-tab-selected {  border-bottom-color: #4EBBE4;}

HTML 代码```HTML

Tab 1

Tab 2

Tab 3

Tab 4

_译注:tab 的切换效果可以通过纯 CSS 实现,可以参考 [CSS trick for tabs without javascript demo](http://poppinlp.com/demos/tabs-without-javascript.html)_### 站点头部 [Demo](http://www.flexboxpatterns.com/site-header)![image](http://www.flexboxpatterns.com/images/thumbs/siteHeader.png)你可以把这种组件作为网站或者 webapp 的顶部。要构建这种组件,典型方法是把 logo 和导航按钮包裹在一个容器,设置按钮放在另一个容器中。然后,使用 `float` 把两个容器方别推向两边。紧接着,你要对整个顶部元素清除浮动。对于一个简单布局而言,这也太复杂了。如果使用弹性盒子,你依然需要容器元素,但是你不需要为容器添加特定的样式了,因为 flexbox 已经让父元素来负责布局了。除开 `display: flex` 属性外,我们还需要另外两个属性来调整布局:* `justify-content: space-between` 让容器左右分开成为了可能。这个属性把 logo 和导航按钮推向了左边,把设置推向了右边。* `align-items: center` 讲主轴上的元素垂直居中对齐。这个属性很重要,因为 logo 和导航按钮高度不同,如果不设置该属性,它们默认会对齐上边沿。```CSS.siteHeader {  /**   * Lay out the children of this container with   * flexbox, which is horizontal by default.   */  display: flex;  /**   * Make the container put as much space as possible   * between its children, with the children at either   * end laying flush against the container's edges.   */  justify-content: space-between;  padding: 10px;  background-color: #56727C;}.siteHeader__section {  /**   * Lay out the children of this container with   * flexbox.   */  display: flex;  /**   * Align the children in the center, along   * the main axis. By default the children will   * align along their top edges.   */  align-items: center;}.siteHeader__item {  padding: 5px 15px;  font-size: 12px;}.siteHeader__item + .siteHeader__item {  margin-left: 5px;}.siteHeader__item.is-site-header-item-selected {  color: #FFFFFF;  background-color: #415F69;  border-radius: 4px;}.siteHeaderLogo {  font-size: 20px;  line-height: 0;  color: white;}.siteHeaderButton {  cursor: pointer;  color: #D9E9EF;}

### 表单底部 Demo

你也许需要在表单底部放个进度圈或者验证反馈。和上面的例子类似,使用弹性盒子可以将这些内容和表单提交按钮分隔开来。

CSS 代码

```CSS

.formFooter {

/**

* Lay out the children of this container with

* flexbox, which is horizontal by default.

*/

display: flex;

/**

* Align the children in the center, along

* the main axis, which is horizontal in this case.

*/

align-items: center;

/**

* Make the container put as much space as possible

* between its children, with the children at either

* end laying flush against the container’s edges.

*/

justify-content: space-between;

border-top: 1px solid #D7DBDD;

padding: 10px;

}

.formFooter__section {

/**

* This container orders items horizontally.

*/

display: flex;

/**

* It aligns them vertically in the center.

*/

align-items: center;

}

.formFooter__item + .formFooter__item {

margin-left: 5px;

}

.formFooterFeedback {

color: #86969C;

font-size: 12px;

line-height: 0;

}

.formFooterSpinner {

animation: formFooterSpinner 1s infinite steps(8, end);

}

@keyframes formFooterSpinner {

0% { transform: rotate(0deg); }

100% { transform: rotate(360deg); }

}

.button–clear {

color: #16A2D7;

background-color: #FFFFFF;

border: 1px solid #FFFFFF;

}

```

HTML 代码```HTML

Saving...

Reset

Save

### 侧边栏 [Demo](http://www.flexboxpatterns.com/side-bar)![image](http://www.flexboxpatterns.com/images/thumbs/sideBar.png)这也是一个相当经典的组件。你甚至不需要 flexbox 来构造它,div 就足够了…… 不过,如果设计师让你把其中一个按钮单独拿到下面,你可以用 `position: absolute` 来处理,当然也可以用 flexbox。除了 `display: flex` 和 `justify-content: space-between`,我们还需要另一个属性:* `flex-direction: column` 会将主轴 (main axis) 从水平方向改为垂直方向。正如你所猜测的那样,现在子元素将会垂直排列了。CSS 代码```CSS.sideBar {  /**   * This container orders items according to flexbox   * rules. By default, this would arrange its children   * horizontally. However, the next property...   */  display: flex;  /**   * ...sets the main axis to be vertical instead of   * horizontal, so now the children are laid out   * vertically, from top to bottom.   */  flex-direction: column;  /**   * It will also put as much space as possible   * between its children, with the children at either end   * laying flush against the container's edges.   */  justify-content: space-between;  height: 300px;  width: 150px;  border-right: 1px solid #D7DBDD;  background-color: #FCFDFD;  padding: 10px;}.sideBar__item {  cursor: pointer;  padding: 5px 10px;  color: #16A2D7;  font-size: 12px;}.sideBar__item.is-side-bar-item-selected {  background-color: #EEF3F5;  border-radius: 4px;}

HTML 代码```HTML

Inbox

Contacts

Account

Legal

### 居中提示 [Demo](http://www.flexboxpatterns.com/centered-prompt)![image](http://www.flexboxpatterns.com/images/thumbs/centeredPrompt.png)不使用 flexbox 的居中布局通常需要一些 hack 技巧,比如使用绝对布局然后通过 2D transform 平移。使用 flexbox,你只需要在容器元素设置 4 个属性:* `display: flex`* `flex-direction: column`* `align-items: center` 设置或检索弹性盒子元素在侧轴(纵轴)方向上的对齐方式。在这里和设置 `text-align: center` 的效果有点类似。* `justify-content: center` 子元素向主轴中心紧挨靠拢。CSS 代码```CSS.centeredPrompt {  /**   * Lay out the children of this container with   * flexbox.   */  display: flex;  /**   * Rotate the main axis so that the children   * are laid out vertically, the same as in the   * above "Side bar" example.   */  flex-direction: column;  /**   * Align the children in the center, along   * the main axis. Because the direction is   * "column" this has a similar effect as setting   * text-align: center.   */  align-items: center;  /**   * Instead of pushing the children apart, as in   * previous examples, we will group them together   * in the center of their container.   */  justify-content: center;  min-height: 300px;  padding: 10px;}.centeredPrompt__item + .centeredPrompt__item {  margin-top: 5px;}.centeredPromptIcon {  font-size: 60px;  line-height: 0;}.centeredPromptLabel {  color: #86969C;  font-size: 30px;  font-weight: 700;  text-align: center;}.centeredPromptDetails {  color: #86969C;  font-size: 16px;  margin-bottom: 10px;  text-align: center;}.icon {  color: #BCD2DA;}

HTML 代码```HTML

Welcome to the app!

Thanks for signing up. Let’s take a look around.

Begin tour

### 居中图标 [Demo](http://www.flexboxpatterns.com/centered-icon)![image](http://www.flexboxpatterns.com/images/thumbs/centeredIcon.png)使用同样的方法,我们还可以居中更多东西,比如图标。CSS 代码```CSS.centeredIcon {  /**   * Lay out the children of this container with   * flexbox.   */  display: flex;  /**   * As in the above "Centered prmopt" example,   * we'll rotate the main axis so that the children   * are ordered vertically.   */  flex-direction: column;  /**   * And just like in that example, align the children   * in the center, along the main axis.   */  align-items: center;  /**   * Same thing here as before: group the children   * together in the center of their container.   */  justify-content: center;  border: 1px solid #D7DBDD;  font-size: 40px;  width: 90px;  height: 90px;  border-radius: 100%;  box-shadow:    0 2px 1px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.05),    0 2px 3px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.05),    0 4px 8px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.05);}

HTML 代码```HTML

### 功能列表 [Demo](http://www.flexboxpatterns.com/feature-list)![image](http://www.flexboxpatterns.com/images/thumbs/featureList.png)在这个列表中,其中一行是反向排列的,实现方法很简单,只需要添加一个 flexbox 属性:`flex-direction: row-reverse` 把容器中的子元素按照 HTML 中的顺序反向排列。CSS 代码```CSS.featureListItem {  /**   * Lay out the children of this container with   * flexbox, which is horizontal by default.   */  display: flex;  /**   * Align the children in the center, along   * the main axis, which is horizontal in this case.   */  align-items: center;  max-width: 400px;  padding: 10px;}.featureListItem + .featureListItem {  border-top: 1px solid #D7DBDD;}.featureListItem--reverse {  /**   * We can specify the flex-direction so that   * the children elements are displayed in the   * reverse order of how they appear in the   * markup.   */  flex-direction: row-reverse;}.featureListItem__icon,.featureListItem__description {  padding: 5px 15px;}.featureListItem__icon {  font-size: 50px;  line-height: 0;}.featureListItem__description {  color: #86969C;  font-size: 12px;}

HTML 代码```HTML

The calendar feature makes scheduling a snap.

Our dashboard gives you a bird’s-eye-view-at-a-glance-on-the-go.

You can get notified by email or SMS.

### 卡片 [Demo](http://www.flexboxpatterns.com/card)![image](http://www.flexboxpatterns.com/images/thumbs/card.png)接下来复习一下,这个卡片的组件用到了此前提到的属性。* display: flex* flex-direction: column* align-items: center* justify-content: center这里没什么新的知识点,但是为我们接下来要介绍的卡片组做了铺垫。CSS 代码```CSS.card {  /**   * Lay out the children of this container with   * flexbox, which is horizontal by default.   */  display: flex;  /**   * Rotate the main axis so that the children   * are laid out vertically.   */  flex-direction: column;  border: 1px solid #CAD0D2;  border-radius: 4px;  overflow: hidden;}.card__description {  /**   * Lay out the children of this container with   * flexbox.   */  display: flex;  /**   * We're going to lay out this element's children   * just like in the "Centered prompt" example.   * First we'll rotate the main axis so that the   * children are laid out vertically.   */  flex-direction: column;  /**   * Just like in the "Centered prompt" example,   * we'll align the children in the center, along   * the main axis.   */  align-items: center;  /**   * And just like in the "Centered prompt", we'll   * group the children in the center of their   * container.   */  justify-content: center;  padding: 15px;}.card__descriptionIcon {  font-size: 32px;  margin-bottom: 10px;}.card__descriptionText {  color: #57727C;  font-size: 12px;  text-align: center;}.card__price {  text-align: center;  color: #57727C;  font-size: 12px;  font-weight: 700;  padding: 5px 15px;  border-top: 1px solid #D7DBDD;  background-color: #EEF3F5;}.card--fixedWidth {  max-width: 120px;}

HTML 代码```HTML

Science potion

Costs $5

### 卡片组 [Demo](http://www.flexboxpatterns.com/card-group)![image](http://www.flexboxpatterns.com/images/thumbs/cardGroup.png)现在我们来学习最后一个 “卡片组” 组件。我们需要考虑两个麻烦的地方:1. 我们想要每个卡片的宽度相等,但是里面包含的内容多少可能各不相同。2. 我们想要所有的卡片注释高度相等,同样,每张卡片的注释长度也不相等。不适用 flexbox,你可能会想到使用 `table` 元素来实现这些需求,或者对所有元素使用绝对布局,并组合使用百分比、像素和 calc() 来实现。这样也太复杂了。使用弹性盒子,整个问题的解决方案就变得优雅多了。这里我们引入一个新的属性,但是和之前我们提到的属性不同,这个属性应用在 **子元素** 而不是容器。我们为每张卡片设置 `flex: 1 1 0`,使得每张卡片的宽度相等。这个属性是以下三个属性的简写方法:* `flex-grow: 1` 设置或检索弹性盒的扩展比率。默认值为 0,我们设置为 1,此时卡片会尽可能扩展以填充容器。* `flex-shrink: 1` 设置或检索弹性盒的收缩比率。默认值为 1。我们设置为 1,此时卡片会尽可能收缩以适应容器。* `flex-basis: 0` 设置或检索弹性盒伸缩基准值。设置为 0 的时候,其大小仅由容器的大小所决定。这些属性满足了第一点要求。对于我们的第二个要求,我们可以对 flex 属性稍作调整,改成 `flex: 1 1 auto`。* `flex-basis: auto` 导致卡片注释的高度自适应,意思就是最长的注释框拥有最大的高度。由于注释同时拥有 `flex-grow: 1` 属性,因此较短注释的卡片会自动伸长来适配容器高度。CSS 代码```CSS.cardGroup {  /**   * Lay out the children of this container with   * flexbox, which is horizontal by default.   */  display: flex;  border: 1px solid #CAD0D2;  border-radius: 4px;  overflow: hidden;}.cardGroup__card {  /**   * The flex property is a short-hand for setting   * the flex-shrink, flex-grow, and flex-basis   * properties. These properties control how the   * element resizes to fill its container.   *   * We'll also set flex-grow to 1 so that it   * will expand to fill its container. (The   * default value is 0.)   *   * We'll set flex-shrink to 1 so that the element   * will shrink as its container gets smaller.   * (The default value is 1.)   *   * Last, we set flex-basis to 0 so that its   * size is solely determined by the size of   * the container. (The default value   * is auto, which would cause the content's   * size to also be a factor in this calculation.)   *   * The net result of these properties is that the   * element is a fluid size, and will expand and   * shrink with its container and siblings, but   * they will all have the same size, even if they   * have different amounts of content.   */  flex: 1 1 0;  border: none;  border-radius: 0;}.cardGroup__card + .cardGroup__card {  border-left: 1px solid #D7DBDD;}.cardGroup__cardDescription {  /**   * We're doing almost the exact same thing here as   * we did above. The difference is that its   * flex-basis is auto, so now the size of its content   * will affect how large it is.   */  flex: 1 1 auto;}

HTML 代码```HTML

Trial

Free!

Basic tier(most popular)

$10.00

Advanced tier(only for enterprise-level professionals)

$6,000.00

```

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郑重声明:本文版权归原作者所有,转载文章仅为传播更多信息之目的,如作者信息标记有误,请第一时间联系我们修改或删除,多谢。

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